Josephine Baker - Inductee

1906 - 1975

Born to a humble working-class family, Josephine Baker grew up cleaning houses and babysitting for wealthy white families who reminded her to “be sure not to kiss the baby.” After dropping out of school, she lived on the streets of St. Louis where her street-corner dancing led to a career in Vaudeville during the Harlem Renaissance.  In 1925 she joined “La Revue Nègre” in Paris where her exotic and sensual performances made her an overnight sensation. In 1934 Baker was the first African American female to star in a major motion picture, Zouzou.  During the Nazi occupation of France, she joined the French Underground and smuggled intelligence coded within her sheet music to the resistance in Portugal.  In recognition of her services she received the Croix de Guerre, the Rosette de la Résistance, and was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle.  In spite of her gallantry, after the war, Baker was refused service at New York’s popular Stork Club for being black.  In response she refused to entertain in any club or theater that was not integrated – setting off a firestorm about integration. Thrust into the role of civil rights icon, Baker was the only woman asked to speak at the March on Washington in 1963. Though she performed less and less in the ensuing years, in 1973 she opened at Carnegie Hall to a standing ovation, finally receiving the recognition that had long eluded her in the U.S.  On April 12, 1975 – shortly after receiving rave reviews for a retrospective on her 50 years in show business – she suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and passed away at the age of 68.  She received full French military honors and was interred in Monaco at the behest of long-time friend, Princess Grace.  Josephine Baker – who believed in a truly multiracial society – adopted 12 children from nationally and racially diverse backgrounds. She was a true pioneer who never gave up on life in spite of tremendous challenges, and remains one of the most beloved icons of her era.

VIEW ENLARGED BAKER BRONZE MEMORIAL

Lesson Plans
Josephine Baker Bronze Memorial

Plaque Sponsor

Television and Radio host, and Author Dr. Paul M. Lisnek, J.D., Ph.D., dedicates this plaque "In Memory of Jean-Claude Baker and with love to my two and four-legged children."

Demography

Gender Female

Sexual Orientation Bisexual

Gender Identity Cisgender

Ethnicity African American Native/Indigenous

Faith Construct Catholic

Nations Affiliated United States France

Era/Epoch Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) Harlem Renaissance (1919-1929) Jazz Age (1910-1940) World War II (1939-1945)

Field(s) of Contribution

Entertainer

Film

Military

Music

Social Justice

Commemorations & Honors

Montparnasse Quarter of Paris Named Place Joséphine Baker in Her Honor

Croix de Duerre by the French Military (1945)

Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur (1945)

Posthumous St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductee (1990)

Posthumous Hall of Famous Missourians Inductee (1995)

Google Doodle Commemorating Baker's 111th Birthday (2017)

San Francisco Rainbow Honor Walk Honoree (2019)

Resources

Related Images

Josepine Baker Bronze Casting Source Image

Josephine Baker Posing for the Camera

Josephine Baker in Banana Skirt

Josephine Baker in World War II Uniform

Josephine Baker's Rainbow Tribe of Adopted Children

Josephine Baker Headshot

Related Videos

Josephine Baker Zouzou 1934 Performance

Josephine Baker Performing Her Infamous Banana Dance at the Folies Bergère in P…

Authorship

Original Biography Author
Victor Salvo
Biography Edited By
Owen Keehnen
Biography Vetted, Edited, and Certified By
Dr. Claire Oberon Garcia
Ph. D. Director of Race
Ethnicity
and Migration Studies Colorado College
Colorado Springs
CO
Image Rights Usage Granted By
Corbis Images
Image Source for Bronze Casting
Corbis Images
Resources Coordination
Carrie Maxwell